Quick Maintenance Check on Your Ball Lock Mounting System

Although Ball-Lock® is a simple, robust, quick-change system some simple maintenance can keep is performing at its best and add life to the components.

Did you know regularly cleaning chips and debris from your receiver bushings is recommended? It can significantly extent the life of your quick-change system.

How does one check for wear? That’s a great question!

We recommend checking for the following signs of wear:

  1. Numerous flat spots on the ball bearings
  2. Tears or abrasions on the o-ring
  3. Damage to the internal hex of the set screws

*Use repair kits to rebuild shanks when necessary

Pros to keeping your receiver bushings clean:
  • Ensures the best engagement with a shank for proper locating and clamping
  • To avoid containment from settling in your subplate and machine table below

To sum it up regularly cleaning chips and debris from your bushings is recommended. If you notice any signs of wear we recommend replacing the damaged parts with one of our shank repair kits. These kits include a new set of balls, o-ring and a set screw. Click here to learn more.

Happy Machining and make chips happen!

General News


Case Study: Toronto Mold & Die Shop Cuts Set-up Time by 90%

With forty years under their belt, 120 employees, multiple customers with different machining and material demands, and a successful business, the shop turned to Jergens in 2015 to explore options for a better way. A better way to hold the large variety of components that the shop had grown to manufacture for its customers in the mold and die industry. They did, and they did it so well it earned them a reputation in the industry as ‘the aluminum experts’.

The Workholding Challenge

The shop had to build and maintain over 150 different custom fixtures of widely varying configurations. Furthermore, products produced spanned eight different categories, required expertise in CAD, engineering, prototype parts, machining operations including five axis, tooling and the list goes on.

In addition to ordering a range of steel sub plates, fixture plates and numerous clamping components to make the fixtures, the shop also had to machine and assemble them. So, before a single chip hit the floor from a customer part, they had to make their own set ups. They did well, obviously they are a skilled shop, but realized that a better solution had to exist.

Jergens Workholding Solution

By choosing Jergens, and their Zero Point System (ZPS), the shop was able to accomplish three things immediately: refocus on their core business as an expert manufacturer of components within the mold and die industry, secondly, implement a far superior system and lastly, achieve tremendous cost savings.

The ZPS mounting system is a real game-changer for the industry and provides two key advantages – speed and repeatability, less than 0.005mm (0.0002”). The speed part of that equation is that, with ZPS, users can fix, position and clamp all in one step, saving set up time in many cases by as much as 90%. There are many options within the ZPS including units that feature either pneumatic, hydraulic and manual actuation. A newer style even features a clamping module with sensors to provide clamping force feedback. A range of clamping plates, pull studs and mounting styles are also all part of this robust workholding solution.

The Results

For the shop, the biggest realization (economic impact) came from the analysis of the true cost to manufacture and assemble the fixtures, and the incredible reigning-in of set up time – 90% reduction. Prior to the Jergens ZPS solution, the time it took for each set up was ten minutes, and there was an average of thirty setups – that’s five hours per day spent just in setup time. That average time with the change to ZPS went to just one minute, or one-half hour total per day. At a rate of $100 per hour, that’s $450 per day in savings, or $112,500 annually

Tom Reid, Canadian Sales manager for Jergens, who works very closely with the shop, reported, “I’ve seen a lot of positive results, particularly with Drop and Lock (another popular quick-change pallet option) and ZPS, but don’t recall one as dramatic as this in recent years”. Tom continued, “We work closely with the customer to engineer and provide these solutions, and also measure important calculations such as ROI, which in this case was about five weeks”.

The end result for part production was significant and predictable - error reduction, reduced scrap, easy part orientation, and better / more consistent output from the manufacturing floor.



General News, Uncategorized, Workholding

Primary Considerations for 5 Axis Workholding

Lean your Machine - Multi Axis Top Tooling

Clearance and rigidity are the primary considerations when choosing the best vises and fixtures for 5-axis machining.  There must be adequate clearance for the cutting tool and part in their position to the table, providing sufficient space for the Y-axis, the fixture height and size of the part.
The goal when switching from a 3-axis machine to 5-axis is to reduce handling, tooling changes and cycle time.  It is all about a single set-up, or Done-in-One.  Because there is less handling in 5-axis machining the chance of error is minimized, providing more consistent quality parts.

Five-axis is often thought to be overkill for many shops that depend on 3-axis machines.  Yet, there are many operations where 5-axis is found to be more efficient for jobs where 3-axis is the norm.  The increase of accuracy and labor savings from reduced handling can outweigh the cost differential and provide a significant ROI.  As long as all components; fixture, vise, part and cutting tool are firmly set in place with enough clearance, 5-axis machining is by far the most accurate and efficient.
With the right multi-axis quick change system up to 90% of set up time can be saved by implementing a quick change fixturing system for a fraction of the cost of the cutting tool investment.  The Jergens Fixture-Pro® Multi-Axis Quick Change Fixturing workholding system gets the spindle and cutting tool close to the work piece in the optimal machining position.  This can be achieved regardless of the machine or workpiece.  Fixture-Pro’s modular approach provides a combination of subplates, risers and top tooling that is right for any set up.
One manufacturer virtually eliminated set-up time, from three hours to just minutes.  The operation realized a cost savings of tens of thousands of dollars and additional machine capacity of 750 hours annually.
To learn more about Jergens’ Workholding Solutions, visit us online:
General News, Workholding

Jergens workholding solves 5-axis machining vibration issues

B.C. Instruments, headquartered north of Toronto in Schomberg, Ontario has been serving customers in the aerospace, plastic injection molding, medical, nuclear, defense and electronic industries since 1971. The company has grown organically, adding locations and expanding its workforce, now boasting a current size of 57,000 square feet with 145 employees. Five years ago, its Orillia, Ontario division was located half-an-hour southwest on Highway 11 in a tiny leased space in Barrie. After realizing a market need, B.C. Instruments decided to move to the Orillia facility. This 10,000 square foot shop provides precision machining capabilities to a variety of industries.

Rob Prentice, the team leader of the engineered materials machining section, has been at the Orillia facility since it opened in July 2011. He came to B.C. Instruments when they were still located in Barrie. Today, the Orillia location operates with around 12 to 15 employees, with two people working on a night shift.

“We are still hiring though,” says Prentice, who notes that they are feeling the challenge of finding skilled workers that seems to be resonating across the province.

The Orillia shop does approximately 80 per cent of its work in the medical industry with 10 per cent in aerospace and another 10 per cent for other work. However, Prentice notes that some of their most complex work is in aerospace.

Based on the type of jobs, there was a need to explore workholding solutions that were designed for five-axis machining and decreasing time for changeovers. For the past three years, B.C. Instruments has realized great improvements using Jergens quick change workholding devices.

Primarily working with stainless steel 303 and 304, and Aluminum 6061 and 7075, initially, Prentice was concerned with the strength of the workholding system, seeing as they are machining blocks that can reach up to 180lbs. He looked into the Jergens 5-Axis Drop&Lock Pallet Changer & Pull Studs. He was able to basically put the studs in a block and affixed it on its side.

“It was my main concern that the studs might snap. But, I’ve never had any issues,” he explains. Prentice puts the Jergens pattern on the bottom and begins machining without any vibration issues.

“We were really put to a non-typical test when we first came in here,” says Tom Reid, the Canadian sales manager for Jergens Workholding.

Now, B.C. Instruments uses a variety of quick change workholding solutions on the array of machines in their shop. At the moment, the facility includes two 5-axis mills (one that’s a mill/turn), three 3-axis mills, two standard CNC lathes, one CNC lathe with live tooling, one twin turret multi-axis lathe, one ultrasonic machine, one 3D printer, and a manual mill and lathe. On the milling side of the shop, Jergens workholding can be seen on almost every machine.

“One of the big advantages of this system is that I can remove our fixture block, and it repeats when I drop it back on,” says Prentice of the Jergens 5-Axis Fixture Pro Quick Change System on a Deckel Maho DMU 50 milling machine. “I can remove and back screw the part so there is no clamping to get in our way while we are trying to cut.”

The advantages are in repeatability and decreased set up times. For Prentice, it’s all about being able to easily take workpieces on and off. At the shop, they have all their fixturing, vises and chucks set up just to slide right on the machines.

“You just clamp it down with four screws. It’s easy on and off, taking about five minutes instead of spending half an hour trying to figure out how to clamp it and make it all straight,” Prentice explains, adding that offsets always come right off the center of the table, so Prentice doesn’t have to pick anything up for the x- and y-axis, which can save around 20 minutes of time.

If an operator makes even one or two changeovers in a day, by the end of the week you are adding about four or five hours of time saved and machine uptime. If you are running more than one shift, this can spell even greater savings.

For Prentice, this averages to about a cost savings of $500-1,000 per week for a workholding investment of around $1,800. This basically calculates an average return on investment (ROI) of one to two weeks.

“It pays back really fast. It does depend on your changeovers and jobs, but over here we are doing lots of prototyping, so it is on and off. One day it’s on the vise, the other it’s on something else,” explains Prentice.  “We can just drop it and go.”

Another major advantage of the system is that it is designed for five-axis machining. Prentice points out that a lot of times when you are machining, the clamp is on and it can hinder your reach. This Jergens system leaves way less in the way and it is able to tilt up and machine without challenges.

When it comes to repeat jobs, the system also makes it very easy to keep up with production.

“I don’t pick up any origins, I just call up the program/origins I’ve set right into the program the first time, and it repeats,” says Prentice. “I basically press go and it goes. I have no worries with that.”

What is more, using this system has allowed B.C. Instruments to implement lights out manufacturing. Prentice explains that he is able to load three blocks onto the Mori Seiki NMV5000 DCG, which has five pallets, three of which have the Jergens system.

“I just load three of these and go home,” he adds. “The machine runs for about three hours a part. That’s nine hours, so when I come back in, they are all done.”

B.C. Instruments currently has two employees working on an evening shift. Prentice explains that one advantage he’s noticed with the systems is that the day shift is able to do set-ups for the night shift. So when they come in for work, they can just hit go and monitor all the machines, without worrying about anything.

Although there are great advantages, it’s also worth noting that each workholding system has its own cost associated with it.

Eugene Kokbas, the section manager for the engineered materials machining section at the Orillia location explains, “with some parts, you are requiring a lot of extra material to screw in the screws. Sometimes we end up adding over an inch of material. So there is a cost in material. When you are working with parts like [we work with], adding another inch really doesn’t make much of a difference—you have to hold the part, right.”

The shop has found great success with the Jergens 5-Axis Drop&Lock Pallet Changers & Pull Studs, and it can be seen on their two 5-axis machines. The design of the system has allowed them to manufacture both aerospace and medical parts that require tight tolerance and precision machining. With four pins affixed underneath the block, the shop is able to machine all sides without putting stress on the block and possibly distorting the material.

“We typically see customers going for those options when it is an awkward size, like 777 landing gears,” says Reid. “They want better repeatability.”

The strength of the system, the repeatability and time savings has allowed for B.C. Instruments to see great process improvements and make jobs seamless for operators. This is why the Jergens 5-Axis Quick Change System is the right fit for B.C. Instruments.


By: Lindsay Luminoso



Quick Change Fixturing: The Link to Manufacturing Efficiency

I. Efficiency of a Well Designed Quick-Change Workholding System

A well designed workholding system holds the part in a fixed position to allow for precise fabricating within a specified tolerance.  Workholding is comprised of two primary components:

  • The actual workholding tool, such as a vise to hold the piece in place.
  • A device to firmly attach the workholding tool to the machine. This can include the use of fixture plates, universal T-Slot bolts, clamps and other devices which can firmly position and hold the part into place.

Today there are more quick change technologies available than ever before for multi-axis, horizontal and vertical machining centers.

Highly engineered quick-change workholding systems allow for significantly more machining time out of every shift.  There are systems that offer dramatic improvements and savings under the spindle when compared to traditional workholding methods.

Manual Systems

Some manual mounting systems can shave up to 75% from your set up times by implementing a quick change fixturing system for a fraction of the cost of traditional methods, such as; clamps, T-Slot bolts, strap clamps, locating pins and more.  A manual quick change system can also be enhanced with either pneumatic or hydraulic release for faster part change over.

Some provide repeatability of up to +/-0.0005" (+/-0.013mm) or better, all allowing for increased uptime and much higher accuracy.

By using Ball Locking shanks with receivers, Quick Locating System fixture plates and subplates, the operator can quickly and accurately locate and hold down fixtures to the machine table in minutes.  These specialty ball locking shanks incorporate internal ball bearings.  As the hex key is tightened the shank locking mechanism moves the spring-loaded ball assemblies outward, locking them into place.  They can have holding forces ranging from 625 lbs. for a 1/2″ (13mm) shank to 15,200 lbs. for a 2″ (50mm) shank.

To mount the system receiver bushings are preinstalled into the subplate or fixture plate, and then a vise can be easily mounted without the need for indicating.  Simply install the shanks into the jigsaw base of the vise and tighten them down with a hex key.  Then load the parts into the machine and it’s ready to go.

This method is far more efficient than setting up with a traditional vise, which is time consuming and labor intensive.  Using the right quick change system can allow your spindle to be cutting, not waiting to cut.  In addition, some of these set-ups can hold two parts at once, eliminating the need for an extra set-up, while doubling the production.

See Quick Change system in action

Automated Systems

There is revolutionary technology available that allows for fixing, positioning and clamping in a single operation.  The most efficient is a Zero Point Clamping System which allows the operator to fix, position and clamp in a single step.  Zero Point Systems can cut set up times by up to 90%.  They are available with either pneumatic or hydraulic release.  The positive locking locating modules allow operators to quickly change out large and small fixtures with extreme accuracy and minimal effort.

Extremely accurate automated mounting systems permit accuracy, speed and repeatability of up to <0.0002” (0.005mm).

The features of Zero Point Systems include pull studs that can be installed directly into the workpiece, which is ideal for large or heavy parts.  They can have corrosion-resistant construction suited for use in food service, pharmaceutical and chemical applications.  Plus, their variable dimensions allow for optimal use of traverse displacement.

Zero Point Systems can be ideal for a variety of mountings.  Their features include Installation Mounts which are manufactured to match specific machine table requirements, Surface Mounts that are designed for table surface installation and Flange Mounts that have internal or external line options, making it easy to adapt to existing columns or plates with low installation depth.

To recap, many automated system benefits include:

  • High Accuracy – .0002” Repeatability
  • Speed – Air or Hydraulic Release
  • Automation – Release can be controlled by the program
  • Flexible Positioning of Receiver Module for Large and Odd Shape
  • Easy Locating Self Centering Stud
  • Application Opportunities Beyond Machining


II. The Benefits of Quick Change Fixturing

A fully optimized workholding operation provides versatility in machine automation and robotics applications.  It will:

  • Reduce the number of set-ups required
  • Maximize machine capabilities
  • Allow for complete utilization of the machine table envelope
  • Reduce changeover time
  • Minimize spindle down-time
  • Free-up additional capacity
  • Increase overall output, productivity and profitability


Any of these systems can be custom made to the specific needs of the application.  When selecting a manufacturer of a custom workholding system it is important to consider those companies with broad product design and build capabilities.

III.       Conclusion:  Cost Savings Associated With Quick Change Fixturing

The cost savings associated with quick change fixturing can be substantial.  It is not unusual to eliminate two hours of set-up time per shift, which in an average shop can provide approximately $50k in annual overhead cost savings at typical shop burden rates.  Perhaps more importantly, the two hour savings can provide an additional 500 machine hours/shift per year in available machine time.

In the case of one company, the average set-up time was virtually eliminated over their prior process, by:

  • Reducing average set-up from 3 hours to a few minutes
  • Saving approximately $68,000 in overhead cost
  • Gaining an additional 750 machine hours

Quick change fixturing can play a significant role with highly increased efficiencies in manufacturing production.  It is all about saving time and money by changing what is under the spindle, not on it.  When selecting the right workholding partner with the broadest line, operators of CNC and other automated machining can realize efficiencies, cost reductions and increased machine time that will set them ahead of the competition.  Securing jobs for more prototyping is a great opportunity for growth in machine shops.  Yet, for major manufacturers the benefits of quick change fixturing can provide tremendous opportunities to gain market share.

Case Studies







Learn More



The Significance of Workholding

How Workholding Increases Output

Horizontal Machining Center with Jergens Vise Column using Ball Lock Mounting system
Horizontal Machining Center with Jergens Vise Column using Ball Lock Mounting system

When machining a part, workholding is a term used to describe holding the part in a fixed position to allow for precise fabricating within a specified tolerance. Workholding is comprised of two primary components:

1) The actual workholding tool, such as a vise to hold the piece in place.
2) Positioning and firmly attaching the workholding tool to the machine. This can include the use of fixture plates, universal T-Slots, 4 or 5 axis components and many other devices which can firmly position the part.

The second method of workholding includes the creation of a manufacturing cell where the placement of the part is secured to quick-change pallets in order to easily switch workpieces during the machining process. This allows the operator to automatically or manually switch the workpiece position or replace it for performing a subsequent operation, all without interrupting the work in process (i.e. machining parts on other pallets).

The pallets holding the workpiece allow for high repeatability. The self-seating of these pallets allows them to be placed into the exact same location each time. This significantly reduces setup times, from what otherwise would take hours, down to just a few minutes. The addition of a trunnion table can serve as a fourth axis to allow for additional machining without additional set-up, and if necessary it can provide the opportunity to add more components to be machined by simply loading additional pallets concurrently.

Having a workholding system increases productivity and throughput which generates more production uptime and greatly reduced set up and changeover times. In addition, it allows the operator to make changes to the job quickly, ultimately increasing production output. And changing workpieces in a highly repeatable manner significantly increases the quality of the finished part. All of this is accomplished without interrupting production. Often, too much time is spent mounting a single workpiece in a machine. The primary function in streamlining production is to develop a workholding solution that optimizes the machining of multiple parts at once while maintaining tight tolerances.

Workholding Benefits

• High repeatability
• Increased spindle uptime
• Quick-change setups; from hours to minutes
• An increase in the number of parts per shift
• Measurable increase in accuracy and quality

Selecting the Right Workholding Solution
Whether for a small prototype shop or a large production facility, the selection of the best workholding solution is critical to any operation. A system that is proven to increase productivity and throughput by decreasing set up times and changeovers will result in more machine uptime, as long as the components are as rugged and versatile as the OEM machine itself.
Often, the versatility is more a function of a workholding solution, then the machining equipment. The objective is to have a solution that provides a significant, measurable and fast return on investment (ROI): To affect the ROI, the workholding solution must:

• Dramatically increase productivity and throughput
• Speed set ups and changeovers
• Show an increase in machine uptime

Though there are many standard workholding components available, many applications call for customized solutions that provide extreme accuracy and high repeatability. A common challenge in many of these applications is accommodating vertical milling along with multiple-axis machining. For instance, applications that benefit from five-axis machining where the cutting tool can access the workpiece from multiple sides and angles must have adequate space to accommodate all components.

Some of these customized solutions are not only extremely versatile, but are also comparatively affordable and easily programmed. It is important to select a company that specializes in the development of workholding solutions for complex geometry and can develop a cell which fixtures the parts on quick-change pallets so the workpiece can be placed at the same location of the cell at every operation. Some workholding companies design 5-axis machining that achieves up to 0.0002” repeatability and unrestricted access to the part, allowing for part-to-part changeover in less than one minute.

The Benefits of 5-Axis vs. 3-Axis Machining

When all or most sides of a part require machining, it is most efficient to utilize multi-axis workholding. However the jaws, other vise components and the machine table itself can restrict access to all sides of the part. In traditional multi-axis cutting the machine must be stopped and the part needs to be repositioned to machine the next surface. Even 3 simultaneous machining axis on a rotary table can limit, or at the very least, slow the machining process. However a well-designed, highly repeatable, 5-axis machining center allows for fast and repeatable manufacturing of even the most complex parts.

Modern multi-axis machining can be described as:

• 3 Axis: Vertical milling machine with CNC computer controls moves three axis: X right to left, Y front to back and Z up and down, controlling movement for the cutting tool
• 3 + 2 Axis: Three plus two machining uses a vertical machining center with a tilting rotary table producing complex parts like a full 5 axis machine tool, but the last two axis are for positional not simultaneous movement
• 5 Axis: A full 5 axis machine tool is able to move all axis’s simultaneously allowing fewer setups and faster machining times

The benefits of 5 Axis Machining Include:

• Reduced number of fixtures & set ups
• Reduced number of operations with 5 sides being machined simultaneously
• Part remains in single clamped position, reducing the potential for error
• Simplifies the machining of complex shapes
• Reduces the total programming required
• Improved part quality due to increased repeatability

The advantages of combining multi-axis and 5-axis machining capability:

• Placing the part into the optimal machining position
• Standard modular components
• A rapid quick change system
• Configure the machining center based on specific need
• Non machine specific (except subplates)
• Easily transfer components to different machines
• Reset for machining of other parts

Conclusion: The Cost Savings of Workholding – Maximizing ROI

Some companies provide clearly defined on-line calculators to show the return on investment for a customer’s workholding solution. Using these calculators graphically represents the savings to the shop or multi-station factory, right down to savings that can be passed along to the end customer. Dollars saved are reflected in:

• Reduced Set-Up Time
• Reduced Tool Change Time
• Calculates Recovered Machine Time
• Calculates ROI on Cost of Tooling Required

To receive more information on Workholding Solutions for manufacturing applications, click below






CNC Cookbook
Production Machining 1
Production Machining 2
Modern Machine Shop

For more information on best in practice workholding solutions, visit Jergens Workholding.

General News

Ball Lock® Quick-Change System Now Available in Stainless Steel

Now available in high grade 17-4 stainless steel, Jergens popular Ball Lock® Quick-Change Mounting & Fixturing System can now be expected to provide a long service life when installed in the most extreme operating environments.

Jergens Ball Lock® Quick-Change Mounting and Fixturing System is the first of any fixturing system to be produced in high grade stainless steel. This move was driven by customers wanting to extend the benefits of Ball Lock® quick change and precision locking technology within corrosive, wet, caustic and similarly harsh manufacturing environments.

This development also enables the Ball Lock® Quick-Change Mounting & Fixturing System of stainless steel shanks, face or back-mount receiver bushings and liners, to also be used in NSF-regulated, medical-grade, and other purity-stringent manufacturing environments.

Ball Lock's popularity among both fixture builders and machine tool operators, stems from its ability to quickly and accurately locate fixtures onto machine tables. The ability to lock and unlock Ball Lock's shanks in seconds, permits the exchange of fixtures in less than a minute, with a position repeatability and accuracy of +/-0.0005" (+/-0.013mm) or better.

The Ball Lock® System utilizes a patented locking technology to securely hold fixture plates to subplates with up to 20,000 lbs. (9000 kg.) of hold-down force per shank. Fixtures can also be quickly exchanged between different machines when both are using the Jergens Ball Lock® Mounting System.

The Ball Lock® system can be configured to create lean-optimized solutions for the most demanding appliciation needs. The benefits of using the Ball Lock® system include:

  • Incredibly FAST setups and changeover
  • Powerfully strong holding forces
  • Combines locking and locating in the same motion
  • Eliminates the need for indicating on CNC machines

A complete range of stainless steel Ball Lock® accessories are also available including T-Slot nuts, tapered caps & nuts, lifting handles, Sine fixture keys, fast-acting Ball Lock® keys, pre-machined T-columns and 4-sided tooling columns, and Ball Lock® vises.

General News


Cleveland, OH – August 23, 2012 – Jergens, Inc., one of the world’s largest manufacturers of lifting, workholding, and fastening solutions, will conduct a session entitled “Set Up Time vs. Cycle Time: The Profitable Benefits of Implementing Quick Change Fixturing” at the IMTS 2012 Conference in Chicago. The session (IMTS06) will be held on Monday, September 10, from 2:00 p.m. to 2:55 pm in room W195.

In the never-ending quest to increase margins and profitability, cost-saving measures traditionally focus on reducing cycle times, often without taking into account the considerable cost-saving benefits of reducing set up times. Jergens’ interactive presentation at the IMTS 2012 Conference will demonstrate the benefits of implementing a quick change fixturing system in 5-axis, horizontal and vertical machining centers, and 4th axis indexers and rotary tables.

The presentation will use a variety of field application examples, videos and comparative analyses to educate attendees on how reducing set up time can have a significant impact on profitability as compared to reducing cycle time. The presentation will also highlight how advances in quick change fixturing options and methodologies can help attendees:

  • Limit the number of set-ups required
  • Reduce tool change time
  • Minimize spindle down time
  • Free up additional capacity
  • Implement lean cells
  • Profitably take on smaller runs

To document the cost-saving benefits of quick change fixturing in real terms, attendees will be presented with methods for calculating direct savings from set up time reduction, savings achieved from reduced tool change time and calculation of recovered machine hours, as well as ROI for a typical installation.

To register for the session, visit or Visit Jergens at IMTS booth W-2312 to learn more about quick change fixturing trends and cutting edge systems.